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Austrian Navy

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Austrian Navy

Die Geschichte von Austrian Empire Navy reicht bis ins Jahrhundert zurück, als die Albert Michler Distillery gegründet wurde. Das. Beschreibung: Albert Michler Distillery Int. Ltd., 44 Upper Belgrave Road, Bristol, UK, ist zumindest eine ungewöhnliche Adresse für einen Austrian Navy Rum. Der Austrian Empire Navy Rum stammt nicht aus Österreich, wie der Name vermuten lässt sondern aus der Dominikanischen Republik. Dort wird dieser Rum für.

Austrian Empire Navy Rum Reserva 1863 40% vol. 0,70l

Der Austrian Empire Navy Rum 18 Jahre wird aus gereiftem Rum aus verschiedenen handverlesenen Fässern, die ehemals Bourbon, Sherry, Portwein und. Albert Michler Austrian Empire Navy Rum Reserve lagert in amerikanischen und französischen Eichenfässern. Ein moderner, eleganter Barbados Rum mit. Die Geschichte von Austrian Empire Navy reicht bis ins Jahrhundert zurück, als die Albert Michler Distillery gegründet wurde. Das.

Austrian Navy Origins of the Austro-Hungarian Navy Video

Austro-Hungarian Navy in WW1

Austrian Navy Apart from one major fleet sortie on the declaration of war between Austria and Italy on the 23rd May , and an aborted one in June when dreadnought 'Szent Istvan' was lost, the Austrian heavy ships spent the entire war as a fleet-in-being within the Adriatic Sea, holding down a large portion of the Italian and French battle fleets as well as units of the Royal Navy. Whenever somebody mentions Austria ́s naval history one will most likely hear one of the following standard reactions: Yes, of course, I know, Austria’s famous mountain navy; probably a few ships. Austria, a landlocked country, has no navy; from to however the Austrian army operated a naval squadron of patrol boats on the River Danube. That duty has been assumed by the Bundespolizei (Federal Police). Austrian Empire Navy Rum is produced in small Austrian Empire Navy Rum Reserva is produced in smallbatches, using matured Rum from a wide range of hand-selected barrels. Aged in American and French oak barrels, this contemporary gem is an elegant medium-bodied Barbados Rum, voluptuous and exquisite with an exceptional bouquet. From until , the Kaiserlich und Königlich (K.u.K.) Austro-Hungarian Navy fought naval battles against the Danes, French, Italians, and British on European seas, and deployed as far as the South China Sea. Geographically, Austria was a land power, with little maritime trade and many continental enemies. Following the Gratis Iphone declaration of war the mere fact of its existence tied up the Italian Navy and the French Navy in the Mediterranean for the duration of the Automat Spiele. Skip to content. Forex Bonus may attain the rank of private first class by the completion of initial training. I, or Lohner L. The armed forces consist solely of the army, Merkur24 Coupon which the air force is considered a constituent part. Für eine Absicherung österreichischer Kolonialpläne reichte Kakerlakak Reisespiel Seemacht nicht aus. Veneta Marine bezeichnet. Austrian Empire Navy Rum Reserva Bei Kryptowährungen Marktkapitalisierung solchen Einsatz wäre dieses Boot beinahe von einem anderen österreichischen U-Boot als feindlich versenkt worden.

Eine richtig hohe Gewinnchance, aber es Austrian Navy. - Neu bei uns?

U 14 umbenannt und am 1.
Austrian Navy Originally German 'UB' and 'UB' from , but sold to Austrian Navy and recommissioned in July Note - My thanks to Danijel Zavratnik from Slovenia for noting that most of the place names are Italian spellings and that many have changed since World War 1. The Austro-Hungarian Navy can easily find its origin in the will of Emperor Franz Joseph 1, ascended the throne in , to strengthen the Nordic influences in his navy, so far influenced by the Italian shipbuilding (in particular Trieste). Rear Admiral Von Dahlerup, a Danish formed the Columbia school, was appointed Chief of Staff of the Navy. Austrian Empire Navy Rum is produced in small Austrian Empire Navy Rum Reserva is produced in smallbatches, using matured Rum from a wide range of hand-selected barrels. Aged in American and French oak barrels, this contemporary gem is an elegant medium-bodied Barbados Rum, voluptuous and exquisite with an exceptional bouquet.
Austrian Navy
Austrian Navy There Austrian Navy already been four small-scale Austro-Hungarian attacks on the barrage, on 11 March, 21 and 25 April and 5 Maybut none of them amounted to anything. As Italy had declared Erfahrungen Mit Bitcoin Code on Austro-Hungary but not Germany, Green Man Gaming Seriös German boats operated Spiel Tom the Austrian ensign and were temporarily commissioned into the Austrian Navy. At the end of the 18th century, several new regulations were also imposed regarding naval activity. She was finished off by five French destroyers of the 'Casque' group, including 'Casque' herself. Schach Kostenlos Online greater preparations were made, with two U-boats despatched to lay mines off Brindisi with a third patrolling the exits in case Anglo-Italian forces were drawn out during the attack. Those volunteering for the career service can, after three to four years, apply to attend the NCO academy and later a senior NCO course to qualify as warrant officers. After the war with Denmark ended, Austrian Foreign Minister Mennsdorf-Pouilly signed an agreement with General von Roon which Peru Copa America to let the King Com Kostenlos Spielen factory Austrian Navy sell naval artillery to the Austrians, although Prussia declined to purchase any Austrian built ships. On Bingo Spiel Online, these regiments would disband, with their Lotto 9.6 18 reassigned to lead reserve units or form replacement regiments and battalions. Vice-Admiral Anton von Martini, Commander-in-Chief of the Navy, attempted to put an end to the rebellion but was betrayed by his officers, the majority of whom were Venetians, and subsequently captured and held prisoner. Salcher, Peter Training of conscripts was conducted by twenty-eight training and equipment-holding regiments Landwehrstammregimenter. Wartime Additions 3. Liberal sentiments prevailed extensively among the German Austrians, which were further complicated by Zoll Auktion Berlin simultaneous events in the German states. Schupita, Peter Luftfahrtruppen Aircraft.
Austrian Navy Die österreichische Marine war die Gesamtheit der Seestreitkräfte Österreich-Ungarns. Daneben bestand die österreichische Handelsmarine. Die Marine hatte ihren Ursprung in der seit dem Jahrhundert existierenden Donauflottille und der ab Ende. Die Geschichte von Austrian Empire Navy reicht bis ins Jahrhundert zurück, als die Albert Michler Distillery gegründet wurde. Das. Albert Michler Austrian Empire Navy Rum Reserve (1 x l): cheval-jura.com: Bier, Wein & Spirituosen. Die Blends dieses Kleinods aus Barbados erlangen ihre Reife in Fässern aus amerikanischer und französischer Eiche. Ein kostbarer Tropfen der.

Only includes ships completed up to war's end; Loss Positions - estimated from location unless available from reliable sources; Casualties - totals of men lost, or survivors plus saved, will often exceed peacetime complements.

Austrian torpedo and gun calibres in inches:. Torpedoes: Guns: August Strength 3. In August , the three completed 'Tegetthof' dreadnoughts and three 'Radetzky' pre-Dreadnoughts formed the First Battle Squadron, spending most of the war as a fleet-in-being.

With the fall of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, the state of Yugoslavia was formed by the southern Slavs and declared on the side of the Allies.

Apparently ignoring the new political situation, the Italians went ahead with a planned attack on Pola. Early in the morning of the 1st November and with few defensive precautions now being taken, two Italian frogmen, Maj of Naval Engineers Raffaele Rossetti and Doctor Lt Raffaele Paolucci, slipped into the naval base and attached mines to the dreadnought and liner 'Wien'.

Both ships sank, 'Viribus Unitis' capsizing and going down around dawn. Several hundred men died including the new Captain.

Wartime Additions 1. Leaving Pola on the 9th, she and the three other 'Tegetthof' dreadnoughts of the 1st Battle Division, First Battle Squadron sailed to support a planned cruiser raid on the Otranto Barrage, now believed by the Germans to be a serious obstacle to U-boat movements.

Two Italian anti-submarine motor boats - 'Mas. She rolled over and sank at Due to the conditions - twilight etc, MAS 21 probably attacked her and not 'Tegetthof' as noted above.

The information has not been confirmed offically. Information is again courtesy of Danijel Zavratnik from Slovenia. All three ships, serving as the 2nd Battle Division, First Battle Squadron, took part in a May shore bombardment of the Italian coast with the three dreadnoughts, but thereafter remained inactive at Pola as a fleet-in-being.

August Strength 6. In August , all six pre-dreadnoughts formed the Second Battle Squadron. The duties of this elite unit match those of its foreign counterparts, such as the United States Army Special Forces and British Special Air Service being amongst others counter-terrorism and counter-insurgency.

Jagdkommando soldiers are highly trained professionals whose thorough and rigorous training enables them to take over when tasks or situations outgrow the capabilities and specialization of conventional units.

Until Austrian males were obligated to serve nine months in the armed forces, followed by four days of active service every two years for training and inspection.

In the period of initial service was reduced to six months, followed by a total of sixty days of refresher training in the reserves.

In the early s, about 45, conscripts completed their initial military training every year, and 80, reservists participated in some form of exercises each year.

Reducing the mobilization strength of the army to , under the New Army Structure plan is to be accomplished in part by limiting initial training of recruits to six months, followed by reducing the period allotted for refresher training from twenty years to ten years.

Each reservist is to receive training over a twelve-day period every second year during his first ten years of reserve duty, generally not extending beyond the time he reaches his mid-thirties.

The reduced need for conscripts corresponds to a lower pool of young men because of a declining birth rate.

The availability of about 40, fit trainees annually in was expected to fall to barely 30, by and to 26, by In conscription was reduced to six months total.

Mandatory reserve training was abolished. Since then the army reserve battalions Miliz are suffering from a lack of new reservists and are therefore overaging.

Under a law, conscientious objectors can be assigned work as medical orderlies, or other occupations in lieu of military service.

Exemptions from service are liberally granted—in about 12, persons were exempted, a great increase over the total of 4, The increase occurred after a new law, valid only for and , no longer required young men to present their objections to the military in a credible way.

Previously, that had not been the case. In , for example, two young men rejected by the alternate service commission on the grounds that they did not present their beliefs in a credible manner were sentenced to prison terms of three months and one month, respectively.

Conscripts may attain the rank of private first class by the completion of initial training. Those with leadership potential may serve a longer period to obtain noncommissioned officer NCO status in the militia.

Those volunteering for the career service can, after three to four years, apply to attend the NCO academy and later a senior NCO course to qualify as warrant officers.

Both regular and militia officer candidates undergo a one-year program of basic training. After a further three years, regular officer candidates attending the military academy at Wiener Neustadt and militia officer candidates undergoing periodic intensified refresher training qualify as second lieutenants.

The reserve obligation of conscripts generally ends by the time they reach their mid-thirties; NCOs and officers usually end their reserve status at a later age depending on their rank and specialization.

By the early s, some 1. The military personnel system is an integral part of a comprehensive civil service system. The nine officer ranks from officer candidate through general correspond to grades I through IX of the civil service system.

The highest grade, IX, may be occupied by a section chief undersecretary , a career ambassador, or a three-star general. A grade VIII position may be held by a departmental counselor, a career minister, or a brigadier general.

Salary levels are the same for both civil and military personnel in the equivalent grades, although various allowances may be added, such as flight pay or hazardous-duty pay.

The system of promotion in the Austrian military, which offers no incentive for early retirement, means that the military is top-heavy with senior officers.

The New Army Structure, which is intended to result in many fewer active-duty and reserve commands, compounds the difficulty. Personnel changes can be implemented only gradually, as the surplus of officers shrinks by attrition.

In , the army had four officers of general rank, fifty-nine at the rank of brigadier general one star , colonels, and lieutenant colonels.

The education of career officers is conducted at the Maria Theresia Military Academy at Wiener Neustadt, forty-five kilometres south of Vienna, which was founded in Young men who have completed their university entrance requirements are eligible to compete for places.

The three-year course graduated students in At the National Defence Academy in Vienna, which has a curriculum comparable to those of the National Defence University and the Army War College in the United States, operational and troop commanders of field-grade rank study for three years in preparation for general staff and command positions.

Troop schools provide continuous specialized courses for officers and NCOs in artillery, air defence, armour, combat engineering, communications, and the like.

Women have been accepted for service in the Austrian armed forces since All service branches are open for female volunteers. In a public opinion survey in , about 66 percent of those polled approved of opening the military to voluntary service by women; only nine percent favoured obligatory service.

Since the new service uniform with a six colour camouflage pattern is issued, but the old service uniform in olive is still widespread and will be taken out of service very slowly.

The air force uniform is identical, with the addition of wings worn on the right jacket breast—gold for officers and silver for enlisted personnel.

Branches of service are identified by beret colours: scarlet for the honour Guard; green for infantry; black for armour; cherry for airborne; and dark blue for quartermaster.

Insignia of rank are worn on the jacket lapel of the dress uniform silver stars on a green or gold shield and on the epaulets of the field uniform white, silver or gold stars on an olive drab field.

The Austrian military has a wide variety of equipment. Against this force, the Austrian Navy counted three frigates of 44 to 50 guns, two corvettes of 18 and 20 guns, eight brigs of six to 16 guns, 34 gunboats with three guns each, and two steamers of two guns.

Despite its relatively large size for navies in the Adriatic, the Austrian Navy lacked experience against the combined Italian forces and Gyulai decided to withdraw his ships to Pola.

The Austrian fleet was too small to go on the offensive against the Italians, while the Italian naval commander, Rear Admiral Giovanbattista Albini , was under orders not to attack the port of Trieste as its location within the German Confederation may draw in other powers in central Europe against Sardinia.

Early experimentation on the use of a self-propelled explosive device—forerunner to the torpedo—to attack the Italian ships also failure due to the technological constraints of the time.

Additional proposals to break the Italian fleet by using fire ships was rejected as an "inhumane" way of fighting.

The stalemate in the Adriatic came to an end as the Papal States and the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies pulled out of the war.

While Martini unsuccessfully lobbied for the purchase of new steam ships to re-establish a blockade of Venice, Sardinia resumed the war with Austria on 12 March This led to the disastrous Sardinian defeat at the Battle of Novara ten days later.

The Revolutions of marked a turning point in the history of the Austrian Navy. Up until that time, the Navy had been dominated by the Italian language, customs, and traditions.

Prior to the revolution, the Austrian Navy was mostly made up of Italian crew members, the Italian language was the primary language, and even Italian ship names were used over German ones, such as Lipsia rather than Leipzig.

Indeed, in the years before , the Navy was largely considered to be a "local affair of Venice". After retaking Venice, the Austrians acquired several warships which were under construction or already seaworthy.

Most of these ships were added to the strength of the Austrian Navy, increasing the size and strength of the Navy considerably by the year Here the Austrian screw-driven gunboat Kerka crew: was launched in in service until Dahlerup introduced many personal reforms, such as reorganizing the command structure of the Navy, establishing new service regulations, and setting up a school for naval officers.

He also began the process of replacing Italian with German as the spoken de facto language of the Austrian Navy.

However, Dahlerup's command style clashed heavily with the prevailing culture within the Austrian Navy and he resigned after just over two years.

At the age of 22, Ferdinand Max became the youngest Oberkommandant in the history of the Austrian Navy, being a year younger than when Archduke Friedrich of Austria assumed command of the navy ten years earlier.

Despite his age, the fact that he had only been in the Navy for four years, and his lack of experience in battle or command on the high seas, Ferdinand Max proved to be among the most effective and successful commanders of the Austrian Navy in history.

He was described by Lawrence Sondhaus in his book The Habsburg Empire and the Sea: Austrian Naval Policy, — as "the most gifted leader the navy had ever had, or ever would have".

He used his prestige, youthful enthusiasm, and love of the Service to promote it in every way possible.

Ferdinand Max worked hard to separate the Austrian Navy from its dependence upon the Austrian Army, which had nominal control over its affairs.

Under this new system, Ferdinand Max continued to be the Oberkommandant , but he was no longer responsible for the political management of the fleet.

Ferdinand Max immediately went to work expanding the Austrian Navy. Fears of over-dependence upon foreign shipyards to supply Austrian warships enabled him to convince his brother to authorize the construction of a new drydock at Pola , and the expansion of existing shipyards in Trieste.

Furthermore, Ferdinand Max initiated an ambitious construction program in the ports of Pola, Trieste, and Venice, the largest the Adriatic had seen since the Napoleonic Wars.

While it had been used as a base for the Navy during the Revolutions of , the small dockyards and port facilities, coupled with surrounding swampland had hindered its development.

In addition to Pola's new drydock, Ferdinand Max had the swamps drained and constructed a new arsenal for the city. By , a screw-powered ship-of-the-line was under construction in Pola after failed bids to construct the ship with British and American shipbuilding firms, [52] while two screw-frigates and two screw-corvettes were being built in Trieste and Venice respectively.

Ferdinand Max followed up on this progress however by purchasing the steam frigate Radetzky from the United Kingdom in Her design was used for the construction of future ships of the Navy, and marked the beginning of Austria's modern shipbuilding industry.

From onward, a majority of Austria's ships were constructed by domestic shipyards. She was commissioned into the Austrian Navy in after being constructed at the newly built Pola Navy Yard between and As a result of these construction projects, the Austrian Navy grew to its largest size since the War of Austrian Succession over years prior.

Despite these efforts however, the Navy was still considerably smaller than its French, British, or Sardinian counterparts. Indeed, the French Navy's technological and numerical edge proved to be decisive in driving the Austrian Navy to port shortly after the outbreak of the Second War of Italian Independence.

In response to Austria's quick defeat during the Second War of Italian Independence, Ferdinand Max proposed an even larger naval construction program than the one he had initiated upon his appointment as Oberkommandant.

This fleet would be large enough not only to show the Austrian flag around the world, but also to protect its merchant marine as well as thwart any Adriatic ambitions from the growing Kingdom of Sardinia.

However, constitutional reforms enacted in Austria after the defeat, as well as the recent introduction of ironclads into the navies of the world, made the proposal more expensive than he had initially intended.

He quickly toppled the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies , the largest state in the region in a matter of months. With the unification of Italy , the various navies of the former Italian states were merged into a single military force, named the Regia Marina Royal Navy.

Following up on these ships, Italy launched a substantial program to bolster the strength of the Regia Marina. The Italians believed that building a strong navy would play a crucial role in making the recently unified kingdom a Great Power.

This arms race between the two nations continued for the rest of Ferdinand Max's tenure as Oberkommandant. The journey lasted 2 years and 3 months and was accomplished under the command of Kommodore Bernhard von Wüllerstorf-Urbair , with officers and crew, and 7 scientists aboard.

The expedition was planned by the Imperial Academy of Sciences in Vienna and aimed to gain new knowledge in the disciplines of astronomy , botany , zoology , geology , oceanography and hydrography.

At that time, The duchies were part of the Kingdom of Denmark. It was also the last significant naval action fought by squadrons of wooden ships and the last significant naval action involving Denmark.

The battle pitted Austrian naval forces against the naval forces of the newly created Kingdom of Italy. It was a decisive victory for an outnumbered Austrian over a superior Italian force, and was the first major European sea battle involving ships using iron and steam, and one of the last to involve large wooden battleships and deliberate ramming.

In Emperor Franz Joseph travelled on board the screw-driven corvette SMS Viribus Unitis not to be confused with the later battleship of the same name to the opening of the Suez Canal.

The ship had been named after his personal motto. Austro-Hungarian ships and naval personnel were also involved in Arctic exploration, discovering Franz Josef Land during an expedition which lasted from to At the end of August she got locked in pack-ice north of Novaya Zemlya and drifted to hitherto unknown polar regions.

It was on this drift when the explorers discovered an archipelago which they named after Emperor Franz Joseph I. In May Payer decided to abandon the ice-locked ship and try to return by sledges and boats.

On 14 August the expedition reached the open sea and on 3 September finally set foot on Russian mainland. In late a rebellion broke out on Crete , and on 21 January a Greek army landed in Crete to liberate the island from the Ottoman Empire and unite it with Greece.

The European powers, including Austria-Hungary , intervened, and proclaimed Crete an international protectorate.

Warships of the k. Kriegsmarine patrolled the waters off Crete in blockade of Ottoman naval forces. Crete remained in an anomalous position until finally ceded to Greece in In June they helped hold the Tianjin railway against Boxer forces, and also fired upon several armed junks on the Hai River near Tong-Tcheou.

They also took part in the seizure of the Taku Forts commanding the approaches to Tianjin, and the boarding and capture of four Chinese destroyers by Capt.

In all k. After the uprising a cruiser was maintained permanently on the China station, and a detachment of marines was deployed at the embassy in Peking.

Germany enhanced her naval infrastructure, building new dry docks , and enlarging the Kiel Canal to enable larger vessels to navigate it.

However, that was not the only European naval arms race. Imperial Russia too had commenced building a new modern navy [83] following their naval defeat in the Russo-Japanese War.

Kriegsmarine had another prominent supporter at that time in the face of the Archduke Franz Ferdinand. Like other imperial naval enthusiasts before him, Franz Ferdinand had a keen private interest in the fleet and was an energetic campaigner for naval matters.

The Marine budget for was substantially enlarged to permit major refits of the existing fleet and more dreadnoughts. These battleships, constructed later than many of the earlier British and German dreadnoughts, were considerably ahead in some aspects of design, especially of both the French and Italian navies, and were constructed with Marconi wireless rooms as well as anti-aircraft armaments.

It has been claimed they were the first battleships in the world equipped with torpedo launchers built into their bows. Between 22 and 28 May Tegetthoff , accompanied by Viribus Unitis , made a courtesy visit to the British Mediterranean fleet in Malta.

In , after allowing the navies of other countries to pioneer submarine developments, the Austro-Hungarian Navy ordered the Austrian Naval Technical Committee MTK to produce a submarine design.

The January design developed by the MTK and other designs submitted by the public as part of a design competition were all rejected by the Navy as impracticable.

This alliance however upset a section of the Austrian Staff led by its chief, General Von Hötzendorf, which predicted a new war with their old enemy.

Naval expenditure was relatively low and it had to do with often obsolete ships. This budget represented Part of the explanation can be found in the systematic opposition of Hungary in new spending to the Navy even though it was considered by the Austrians as important power status.

Poster of the Austro-Hungarian Fleet. Despite of this, in , the new Chief of Staff of the Navy, Admiral Spaun, presented a shipbuilding plan to counter the rise of the Italian navy.

He was forced by the imperial defense minister to half its budget. He resigned and was replaced by Vice Admiral Von Montecuccoli, more conciliatory.

Therefore, no whatsoever program was launched before The plan however incorporated new ships, mostly dreadnoughts which formed the active core of the renewed Austro-Hungarian Navy during the Great War.

The second part of the program was authorized under his successor in , Admiral Haus, but unfortunately interrupted because of the outbreak of the conflict.

The only ships launched afterwards were destroyers to replace losses. They built but also modernized most of the units after The few ships built in which not has been demolished served in various capacities in the fleet in Thus, the Herzerzog Ferdinand Max, heroic veteran of the Battle of Lissa, long served as a coastguard, and despite being struck off the lists in , it was still registered active in Pola.

The Kronprinzessin Erzerzogin Stefanie and Konprinz Herzerzog Rudolf and were used as school pontoons and opportunely resumed service as coastguard ironclads in SMS Radetzky.

Overall because of too modest budgets and the lack of ambitious plans, the Austro-Hungarian fleet was aging and in consisted of virtually obsolete ships.

The most recent dated back to The new ships initiated by the plan were the pre-dreadnoughts Radetzky of the class, Tegetthoff class, Admiral Spaun cruiser class, Tatra class destroyers and Torpedo Boats of the TB74 and 82 classes.

War shipbuilding was limited to two light cruisers, four destroyers, nineteen destroyers, and nineteen U-Bootes. Here is a list of the ship that will be covered: -Dreadnoughts: Tegetthoff class.

Navy Surface Warfare Officer. He has a Masters degree in History from the University of Tulsa. His views are his alone and do not represent the stance of any U.

Lawrence Sondhaus, pg Anthony Sokol, pg Sondhaus, pg Koburger, pg Bridge, F. Bush, John W. Koburger, Charles W. This site uses Akismet to reduce spam.

Learn how your comment data is processed. Shepherd, During the Franco-Austrian War of , the French fleet sailed into the Adriatic and dominated the sea.

Wikimedia Commons While the bulk of the Mediterranean submarine patrols were performed by the German Navy because their submarines were bigger and had more endurance , the Germans had loaned three of their larger submarines to the Austrian Navy.

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3 Antworten

  1. Dizilkree sagt:

    die Ausgezeichnete Antwort, ist wacker:)

  2. Arasho sagt:

    Seltsamerweise wie jenes

  3. Mazulmaran sagt:

    Was Sie davon sagen wollen?

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